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6.             25.10.2015 -. 26.10.2015 ( ' ) 8.12.2015 .

 

 

7.             , 2012 (: ) " 20/7 . . - 11 - . , . . " " " " .

 

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9.             - . , , . , , 20 . , 2003 2009, , " , . , , .

 

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10.          10.3.2016 ( ' ; ' -' ) . - (' 23.3.2016), 8.5.2016 . , , 2003 " " , , . .

 

11.          , 11.7.2016 . , . 13.7.2016 , 20.7.2016. , , 13.10.2016.

 

12.          21.7.2016 . , . , - , . . , .

 

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14.          , 13.10.2016 , "-2016 (: ) , . " " ( ' ) " " ( ' ), . " 67(1)" ( 70(2) ). " , , , , 67() [" 66()-..]" ( 74 ).

 

15.          . , . , , , ( : " 4077/12 ' , " - ( ) ' , 33 ' - (5.2.2013) (: 2013)). 13.10.2016 , . 2013 , , , ( : " 5668/13 ' , 23 ' (17.3.2016)).

 

16.          , . 20.3.2016 " , , . ( 2004) , . , " 19 . , .

 

 

17.          , ( 2013, ' - ( ) ' ; " " ( 2017) ). , " ", (: " 4447/07 ' . . . [1995] ", " (3) 664 (2010); " 9183/09The Football Association Premier League Limited ' (13.5.2012); " 10007/09 ' (18.3.2013)).

 

" " (Sharon Kaufman, In the shadow of 'death with dignity': medicine and cultural quandaries of the vegetative state, American Anthropologist, vol. 102(1) 69, pp. 76-78 (2000); : , ' 16 ( " " , 2012) (: )). , ( ) "" (" 2458/01 ' , , " (1) 419 (2003); " 5771/12 ' ( ), "-1996 (18.9.2014) (: )). " " ( 2013). " " . 1980 (Dostal J, Utrata R, Loyka S, Brezinova J, Svoboda M, Shenfield F., Post-mortem sperm retrieval in new European Union countries: case report., Hum Reprod. Vol. 20, No. 8 pp 2359 (2005)) 1999 , (Carson Strong, Ethical and Legal Aspects Of Sperm Rerieval After Death or Persistent Vegetative State, Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 27 pp. 347 (1999) 3 ) (: Carson). , , (: " 2401/95 ' , " (4) 661, 718 (1996) (: ); " " () 21 (1989)).

 

 

18.          , , . " [] ". , ( " 4445/02 ' , " (6) 900, 910 (2002); " 4886/06 ' , ' - ( ) ' (14.1.2007) ). , , . " , , :

 

, . . - . . ... , . [...] . , . . . , , . ( ' 97 30.9.2002, ' 14-13) (: 97).

 

19.          ", , ; , - , , " ( 9 ). , , , , . , , , . , , . - , , ( 20 -21 ; 6 , "-1953 , , ). 2003 , " " (" 10224/03 ' (22.9.2004)).

 

2007 , , 30 " 20/07 8.11.2007 " ". , (: ), 2012, , : , , . :

 

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. , , , . , , , . (, ' 47)

 

20.          - - . , , - , . , " 2254/02 ' ( , 13.8.2002) ( ), . " 13530/08 " " ' " (6.12.2009) (: ) . , . , , : " " " , , , ". .

 

" () 7930-11-09 ' (10.4.2011), " 14217-06-14 ' (15.4.2015) " 28130-07-14 .. ' (17.11.2014). , , . " 12977-01-14 ' (6.1.2015) , ( " 2254/02 ), . . .

 

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, , , . , , , , , , , 18 , , , , . , . , , , . , , , , , ". [ ]

 

22.          , (: 28 , "-1962 (: ), " 121/79 ' , " (2) 253, 260 (1980); " 783/81 ' , " (2) 1 (1985); " 9417/09 ' (16.2.2010); , ' 174-173; 28 ; 11 , "-1981 : 4 (), "-1959)). , 14 " ". , , (: ' " " 147 (") (: '); ' 176-175 , ), .

 

 

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, , -, ... , , , , .

. " , , , , " " " ( " , , " - 45, 47 (, "); : " " 120 61, 71-69 ("); : " ( ', "), ? " 119 (")).

 

- , , , (: '; Stephen F. Beiner, Ludwig Lowenstein, Abe Worenklein, and S. Richard Sauber, Grandparents Rights: Psychological and Legal Perspectives, The American Journal of Family Therapy Vol. 42 , Iss. 2, 2014 ;Judith L. Shandling, The Constitutional Constraints on Grandparents' Visitation Statutes, 86 Columbia Law Review, 118 (1986).. , , , :

 

, , . , , 10 ( 2011) . , , (, 2012). . . , , , . , , . , , . [ -..] (, ' 51-50).

 

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, (" 1900/96 ' ' , " (2) 817, 825 (1999); " 294/91 " ' , " (2) 464, 520 (1992); " 1482/92 ' , " (2) 793, 802-801 (1993); : 5 , "-1965; " 6126/94 ' , " (3) 817, 832 (1999). : ' , " ", 57 (")).

 

, , " ", (Tremellen, Kelton, A discussion supporting presumed consent for posthumous sperm procurement and conception, Reproductive BioMedicine Online , Volume 30 , Issue 1 , 6, 7 (2015)) (: Tremellen). , , , (Shelly Sarig & Nili Tabak, An Unusual Petition for Posthumous Sperm Retrieval? What Does It Add to the Debate?, 27 Med. & L. 463, 467 (2008).). 10() ( ), "-1987 ( , " " 27, 100, 103 (2002) (: )). -Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 (: -HFEA) (Effective consent) (Chapter 3, 1). (: - RE H, AE (No 3) [2013] SASC 196 (16 December 2013)) , , , (Catherine Robey, Posthumous semen retrieval and reproduction: an ethical, legal and religious analysis, A Thesis for the degree of Master of Arts Bioethics (2015) (: Robey)). (the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM)) (: -ASRM) . . , , :

 

The desire of a surviving partner to have a child with the gametes of the deceased, in light of their intention to have a family together, may be viewed with sympathy. A more troubling situation is when the request for gametes for posthumous reproduction does not come from a spouse or life partner, but from the parents of the deceased, who see this intervention as promulgating the legacy of their child or as the only way to become grandparents. Ethically, these situations are not comparable. In the case of a surviving parent, no joint reproductive project can ever be said to have existed. Nor do the desires of the parents give them any ethical claim to their child's gametes (, ' 1844, Carson, ' 58)

 

- (Cornell Guidelines, New York hospital guidelines for consideration of requests for post-mortem sperm retrival, https://www.cornellurology.com/resources/guidelines) (: ).

 

25.          , , . " " (1) 31 (2014) -, (: , ) " ". , " ". , . , . , , . , , , , . , " ". , " " , , , , :

 

( ), . , , ( ). , , . (, ' 45).

 

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. ? . , . . , . , , . , . , ( " ?" 27, 96, 97 ( 2002); , ' 109 "' ' " 221 ( - , ") (: ); 97, ' 42).

26.          , , " " , " " 203 ( - , "). , "" , , , . " , , - . , , " ( Ruth Landau, Posthumous sperm retrieval for the purpose of later insemination or IVF in Israel: An ethical and psychosocial critique, Human Reproduction 19(9), 1952( October 2004)). "' ' " " . " " 23, 33 (2015), , ( Hecht v. Superior Court, 50 Cal. App. 4th 1289, 59 Cal. Rptr. 2d 222, 226 (1996), as modified (Nov. 19, 1996) (: Hecht); Shapiro & Sonnenblick, The Widow and the Sperm: The Law of PostMortem Insemination (1983) 1 J. Law and Health 229, 232.; Hall v. Fertility Inst. of New Orleans, 647 So. 2d 1348, 1350 (La. App. 4 Cir. 1994); Sheri Gilbert, Fatherhood from the Grave: An Analysis of Postmortem Insemination, Hofstra Law Review 22.2 522 (1993) pp. 41-42; Ahuja, Mamiso, Emmerson, Bowen-Simpkins, Seaton A, Simons, Pregnancy following intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment with dead husband's spermatozoa: Ethical and policy considerations, Human Reproduction, 12, 1360-1363 (1997)

 

" " , , -, - , -. , . , , () [ ], "-1970, , , (" 40755-05-10) ( : " - , 207 ("); Brianne M. Star, A matter of Life and Death: Posthumous Conception, 64 Louisiana Law Review, 614 (2004); Devon D. Williams, Over My dead body: the legal nightmare and medical phenomenon of posthumous conception through postmortem sperm retrieval, 34 Campbell law review, 181 (2012); Laura A. Dwyer, Dead Daddies: Issues in Postmortem Reproduction, 52 Rutgers Law Review, 881 (2000); Kristine S. Knaplund, Postmortem Conception and a father's last will, 46 Arizona Law Review, 91 (2004).

27.          , "" , , . , , , - .

 

, .

", , , , ". , . , . , , , , . . -ASMR , , . . , Hans(Jason D. Hans, Posthumous Posthumous gamete retrieval and reproduction: Would the deceased spouse consent? 119 Social Science & Medicine 1017 (2014))), 2064 " . / ?", :

 

"In the event of an early death, the majority of reproductive-aged Americans would want their gametes to be retrieved posthumously to produce a child if that is the wish of their surviving spouse" . ( Pastuszak, Lai, Hsieh, Lipshultz, Posthumous sperm utilization in men presenting for sperm banking: an analysis of patient choice, Andrology 1, 251255 (2013); Nakhuda, Wang, Sauer, Posthumous assisted reproduction: a survey of attitudes of couples seeking fertility treatment and the degree of agreement between intimate partners, Fertil. Steril. 96, 14631466 (2011)

 

28.          "" " ". . " , :

 

" . , , " (, ' 291).

 

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29.          , . , , 2016 -Conseil d'Etat, , , " " (conséquences manifestement disproportionnées) 8 . , (, , 12 - CE, 31 mai 2016, Mme C. A. N 396848, 12 : http://www.conseil-etat.fr/Decisions-Avis Publications/Decisions/Selection-des-decisions-faisant-l-objet-d-une-communication-particuliere/CE-31-mai-2016-Mme-C.-A).

 

, Regina v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority ex parte Blood, 2 All E R 687 (C A 1997) (: Blood) . , -HFEA, , , . () -, . -HFEA. (, ' 702). , , . - Re YZ and Infertility Treatment Authority (2005) VAR 1.:

 

It follows that the issue of whether a direction has been expressed with sufficient clarity in a particular case will be partly a matter of judgment. In the present case there is ample evidence that XZ wished to have a family with YZ. In other words, there is evidence that XZ wished to produce a child, or children, using the gametes of XZ and YZ. This evidence was clearly expressed and witnessed. ( : ' - Edwards; Re the estate of the late Mark Edwards (2011) 81 NSWLR 198. - RE H, AE (No 3) [2013] SASC 196 (16 December 2013)).

30.          , , . , ( , ' 680; -, ' 200; , ' 178; " " 115, 117 ( , 1996)), , , . , . , , . (In re Estate of Kievernagel, 83 Cal. Rptr. 3d 311, 312 (Cal. 2008)) . ( ), . . "Using the intent of the donor to determine the disposition of gametic material upon the donor's death is consistent California law in this area" (id, pp 316).

 

31.          , . , , , . , .

 

, . , , . , . . , . - - , , . , . , , . ( 13 ). , , , Anna Smajdor, perimortem gamete retrieval: should we worry about consent?, 41 Journal of Medical Ethics pp:437-442 (2015); Parpalaix V. CECOS Tribunal de Grande Instance de Creteil (1 ch. Cir) August 1 (1984) Gail A. Katz, Protecting Intent in Reproductive Technology, 11 Harv. J.L. & Tech. 683, 687 (1998)).

 

32.          , .

 

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33.          , 2003, , . , 2009, , " , , . , 21.7.2016, " , . (' 68 -70). , . ( 30 -31 ; : , ' 183; " : ? " (1) 11 (2004); In re Mr & Mrs M v HFEA [2016] EWCA Civ 611 ; In re Estate of Nikolas Colton Evans, Deceased, 2009 WL 7729555; In re Daniel Thomas Christy, Johnson County Case) No.EQVO68545 (September 14, 2007); Bethany Spielman, Pushing the Dead into the Next Reproductive Frontier: Post Mortem Gamete Retrieval under the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act, Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics (summer 2009) 331).

 

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What a man wants in life is what brings him honor in death, even if he didnt leave a will, even if he never made his desires known, and even if he never considered how the world would look after his death. Mans will, even if he left not a word regarding the days following his death, is nevertheless his will, his silhouette, that can be honored, though he is no longer (Asa Kasher, Life in the Heart, 8 Journal of Loss and Trauma, 247-269 (2003))

 

 

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7.             -Right to Procreate -50 (: Skinner v. Oklahoma ex rel. Williamson, 316 U.S. 535, 86 L. Ed. 1655, 62 S. Ct. 1110 (1942); -Posthumous Right to Procreate : Kirsten R. Smolensky, Rights of the Dead, 37 Hofstra L. Rev 763, 783 (2009)), -Right to Procreate :

 

In construing the phrase liberty incorporated in the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, we have recognized that its meaning extends beyond freedom from physical restraint. [...] we have held that the term liberty included a right to procreate, Skinner v. Oklahoma..

(: Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 505 U.S 833 (1992); ").

: Szafranski v. Dunston, IL App (1st) 122975, p. 6 (2013), : Doron Dorfman, The Inaccessible Road To Motherhood The Tragic Consequence of Not Having Reproductive Policies for Israelis With Disabilities 30 Colum. J. Gender & L. 49, 51-55 (2015).

 

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32.          : , , , , .

, 1 -2, , ' :

 

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( : , , ' 135).

 

 

 

 

 


' :

 

" " ( ) , " " ( )?

 

1. (" 2401/95 ' , " (4) 661 (1996)) . (" 4077/12 ' (5.2.2013) (: ) , , , . , , . , , "" , . , (, , 6() , "-1994. " " : 269 ( , - , 2016)).

 

2. , ' ' , , , , , . " " " ( ", "), ( , , " " 223 (")).

 

" " " " ? ( " " (1) 57, 60 (2008) (: ). , ' ' ). : , , , , ( " : , " 463, 468 (2005) (: )). , , "" .

 

3. :

 

(-) , .

(-) , .

 

(-) , .

 

(-) , .

 

(-) , .

 

(-) , .

 

, ( 20 ), , (, , ); ; /; ; . , , , . - , (" (") 16699-06-13 ' - (27.9.2016) , - , ); , " , , . (""). , " " "" .

 

4. , , . :

 

" " ? ?

 

. , : ( ); , ( ); - ( ). , , . . ( ). , , .

 

- - , . , , , , -. , " (-) 27169-11-13 ' (20.1.2016). , , . , , , " ".

 

5. , " " , " " ( "" - " : " 197 (1996), ). , , , .

 

, , . , , . , "" -, . , 12 , , , .

6. , " " , " ", . , - , , " " . : , , , .

 

, . , ( " " , - " (, , 2002)).

 

, , " , "-2016 (: ) . , , , . , , . , . - , " " , ( , ' 477. " ?" 27, 96 (2002). , ).

, , . " " , , 14 - " " . , , , ( 25 ). , .

 

. , ( ), ( "" Sorin Hostiuc & Cristian George Curca, Informed Consent in Posthumous Sperm Procurement, 282 Arch Gynecol Obstet 433 (2010)).

 

, , . , , "" " " , , , . , , .

 

, , , , , . , ( 21 ), , . , 12 , . , , , , .

 

7. , , . , " " ( , "). " : " , ". , , " " ". : , " " " ( ") : " . , ' ''. [ "]? , ' '".

 

. . , , . , -, , . , , "" , , , .

 

, , . , , " , . , , , , " " (" 1482/92 ' , " (2) 793, 808 (1993)). 6 , "-1953 (: ), , .

 

8. , , , ( , " : " , 13, 43 (") (: )). " ", " " ( ). , , , . , , ( " ").

 

, "-1965 (: ), " " (mortua manus). 42() , , " " (" 3130/05 .. " ' .. ", ' 9 (14.9.2006)). "" , , , , "" . , , , " " .

 

9. , , , -. , .

 

, " " ( , ) " " (, , ; " " - (")). , " " , . , ( ).

 

, . , " ( "; " () " " ") . , , , ( "' ' ( ', ) ? " 119, 148-143 (") (: ); , , '- " : " 139 (2002); - 27, 100 (2002) (: )). , , ( 23 . " - " 207 (")).

 

, , , .

 

10. . , , , 10() ( -), "-1987 (: -) ", , , , ". , , ( 8(2) -10() -). , , , (, ' 108).

 

, , ( 36-24 , ). , , . , , , "" (" 326/73 ' , " (2) 612, 615 (1974); , ' 523-521); , ' 151-148; " " 424-422 (")).

 

?

 

11. , , -, , ( , , , ' 504; " : ? " (1) 11 (2004) (: )). , : ( ; " : , " 463, 479 (2005)).

 

12. , , , .

 

, . - : . , "" , , . , , , ( , ' 491; " : -" 83, 119-112 ("-2014) (: ). . , ' 43-41).

 

, , "" "" . , , ", .

 

13. 5 : , ( 8-7 ). , , : , (Guy E. Carmi, Dignity versus liberty: the Two Western Cultures of Free Speech, 26 B.U Intl L.J 277 (2008); Guy E. Carmi Dignitizing Free Speech in Israel: The Impact of the Constitutional Revolution on Free Speech Protection, 57 McGill LJ 793 (2012)). , , 5 : " , , ". , , , - , . , " " . . , ( ), , .

 

, , , ( " " 503, 515 ( , - , 1995)).

 

, , , ( , , Griswold V. Connecticut 381 U.S. 479 (1965)).

 

: " " " " " "

 

14. , , , . , , , . , , ( , 469-470; , ' 126-124; , ' 19-18). , ( , , ). , , "" , , .

 

 

 

15. , , . , , , , ( , ).

 

16. , . -, . , , .

 

 

 

 


' :

1.             , ' -' , . , . . , , , .

2.             , , . , , . , . , .

3.             - . : . [: 24 ]. , , . , , " " [: 8-5 ].

, . , . , . :

" , , , ( ), , " [" 1212/91 " ' , " (3) 705, 723 (1994). : " ?" 1, 14 (2015) (: )].

, , . , " " , . .

4.             , , . , , .

" "

5.             , , " " " ". , , . , , . , . , [: 24 ]. 1.2202 27.10.2003 (: . , "") [: 24 ]. .

6.             , " ", , , . .

, "" , " ". , , . , [ : James Stacy Taylor, Personal autonomy, posthumous harm, and presumed consent policies for organ procurement, Public Affairs Quarterly 20(4) 381 (2006)].

7.             , , ? . , ? , . , ? ( ) "" , ? , . , , -. , . , .

, " " , . , , , , , . , . , [ , 31 ]. , "" , " ", ? [ 15 ].

8.             , . , . . , . , " ".

9.             , " ". .

""

10.          , . , . , . , , . , , , , .

11.          , . . , , , [ : " 451/88 ' , " (1) 330, 337 (1990); " 2266/93 ' , " (1) 221, 235 (1995); " 2401/95 ' , " (4) 661, 790 (1996); " 2458/01 ' , , " (1) 419, 447-444 (2002); " 7052/03 ' , 6 ' (14.5.2006); " 4077/12 ' , - ( ) ' (5.2.2013)]. , .

12.          , [ : , 19-4]. , . , , . . , , : , . , . , . , "" . , , .

, . [ : , 13-12; " : " 13, 37 (2013)]. , , , ( ) . , .

, . , 9 " ": " - , , ". , , .

13.          , , . , , (, )? . , . , ? , , ̭ ? [ , : , 29-19]. . , .

14.          . ? , . , , . ? , . , [: 23-22 ]. , , . , , .

15.          . ( ). , , . , . , "" . , .

16.          , ( ) . , , . , ? , , . , , , . , , .

17.          , , . , . , . , , , - . .

18.          , . , , . , " ". " -D.N.A " [: 17 ]. , , ? , "-D.N.A " ? , , , , ? , , "", . , .

""

19.          , . , , ? , . , . , , . , , " " .

20.          , "" , , . , . , "" , .

, . , . , " ''"; ; .

. .

21.          , , . , "" , . , "" . , . . , . , "" .

22.          , . , , . , .

, " [ ..] , " [ 27 20.7.2016]. . , . , "" , . . , . , , . . , , . , .

, ( ). , 70(2) , "-2016, , " , " [ ].

23.          , . , . . , , ( ). , . , , . . .

24.          , . , "" , "" . "" , , , . , "" " " .

, , . , , . , , . , , "" "" . , .

, , " " . , . . , ; " ", " "; " " " [: 23 -26 ]. , . "" .

25.          , , . , , , .

26.          , . , " - " [ 27 . : 31 ]. . , , .

27.          , "-2005 [: 14-15 ]. " ". , , . , , , . , . , .

28.          , , ( ) . 6 , "-1953 " , ". , 6 :

"() , 6 6() :

(1) , , , ;

(2) , - (1).

() , 6 - () .

() , -.".

. , , . , [ : -, " " (1) 31, 39 (2014); Katherine ODonovan & Roy Gilbar, The loved ones: Families, intimates and patient autonomy, Legal studies 23(2) 332, 339-344 (2003)].

. , , . , "" "" . , , "" "" .

29.          , , .

30.          , , . " 13530/08 " " ' " (6.12.2009). , ( ' ) . , : " ". , . , , .

31.          , , . , , . , [: 23 ]. , .

32.          , , . , . , "" .

33.          2-1, , . , .

34.          , 34 . , . , , .

 

 

 

 


' :

 

1.                 ' . , .

 

 

2. - . , , , , - , ( ) . , , .

 

, (" 4077/12 ' , ' (5.2.2013), : ; " 1118/14 ' (1.4.2015)). , , , , () ' :

 

" ... , , , , . , , ...

: , , , , ... , ...

-, . , , , , ..." ( " " () 21 (1989)).

 

3.            , . - 90 , ( " (") 1922/96 ' .. () " (21.9.1997)). , , , 2003 ' 1.2202 " " (: ). , " , , ". , . " ' 20/07 8.11.2007 " " (: "), , , .

 

4.            , , " " (: ). , 14 - , , , , - 2012 .

 

, "-2016, 13.10.2016 (: ), , .

 

5.            .

 

, ( ), , ( - 19 ).

 

6.            , - , - (informed consent) .

 

7.            , , , ( ) ( - ' , "-1996; - 15 - 17 , "-2008, : ; - ( ), "-1987, : ).

 

, . , . , ( - 2 - 4 , "-1953, : ; - 28 ; - 10() ). , ( " " - 6 ). : " 2401/95 ' " (4) 661 (1996), : ; ; " 52/06 ' Simon Visental Center Museum, 132 (29.10.2008) ; " : " 13 (2013); " - " 459 ("); - " - " (1) (2014), : --; " " (1)57 (2008), : ; " - " 27 (2002), : ).

 

8.            , , , , ( 12 ; ' 45-44 " ; 66 ).

 

9.            , - , "" . (, , "), . , (, , , , ), - ( 24 ; 16 ; ' 44 " ; -- 40).

10.         " - . (presumed consent). , , . -

 

" , , , , . , . , , ...

... , , - - , , , " ( 13 - 16).

 

11.         " " ( ), - .

" " , "" . , . , , . 14() " " , " , ". " " ( : 54() , "-1965; 25 ( ), "-1973; 16 - 23 , "-1979; 23 , "-1967). , , , , , , -

 

" , , ' '. - , : ...

, ' ' , , , , , , , ; , ...

, ; , ' ' (, , []; , , []), ..." (" 1482/92 ' , 12-11 (3.6.1993), ).

 

12.         , , ? , : , ? , , ? : , , . .

13.         , , ( ) ? , , - - , , . , (.) , , . - (), () - .

 

14.              - , , ? , . , , , (-- 43, - " : , , - " 661, 665 (2016), : ).

 

, , ( ) , ( ). , , , , .

15.         : .

 

, ( ), - , , (" "). , , , , , . ( 27 , , 665-663).

 

"" ( "" ). , - , ( ) , . , - . , , " " . , , . , , , .

 

, , , , . , , , , , . -, , , , . , " " ( 61, ). , , .

 

16.         10 , . , " ", -

 

"10. () .

() .

() :

(1) - 8()(2);

(2) - .

() , , , , ."

 

. (' 10()), , (' 10()). , , . " (' 50-49 ").

 

17.         - - ", " - . , ( ), , ( , , ). , , , - , - , . .

18.         , , , . , , , ( 24 -30 , " 16699-06-13 ' (27.9.2016)). : , , -

 

" . . , , . ' ' . , , . , , " ( " - " 223, 230 (). ).

 

" " (" 3267/97 ' , " (5) 481 (1998); " ", 379 (2012)).

19.         ( ) , , . -

 

"9. : , , ; , , , ...

10. , , , , - , . , . , , , .

11. ... , , , , ."

 

, , " " ( 685). . - - , , . , , , . .

 

, - - - , , . ( , ) . , , , , ( 2 - 18 ).

 

20.         , . , , , .

 

' " - - (' 48-46 ").

 

21.         , , . .

 

" " (). , (), . , , " ''" ( '') . , , , , , . , , , , (" " - ' 26 ).

 

22.         "" - ( ) , , . " " .

 

23.         : , , , , . - - .

 

, .

 

 

 

( ' , ' , ' -' ) ' .

 

, ( ' , ' , ' -' ) ( ) , " " . , , .

 

 

, " " (22.12.2016).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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