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, , , (: ; " 9098/01 ' , " (4) 241 (2004); " 3809/08 ' (28.05.2012); " 5771/12 ' ( ), "-1996 (18.09.2014); " 5239/11 ' (15.04.2015); " 8665/14 ' (11.08.2015)).

 

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11.          , ' , (' ") (" "), ( 3) 8, 8 -9 . , 8 . , ( 8() ), ( , " " ) "" .

 

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Heiner v. Donnan, 285 U.S. 312, 320 (1932)

Carrington v. Rash, 380 U.S. 89 (1965)

Vlandis v. Kline, 412 U.S. 441 (1973)

( 22 1) ) Stanley v. Ill., 405 U.S. 645 (1972)

Cleveland Bd. of Educ. v. LaFleur, 414 U.S. 632 (1974)

 

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Fairfax County Fire and Rescue Services v. Newman, 222 Va. 535 (1981)

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25-23 .

 

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22.          , , .

 

.                    "

 

1)             Stanley V. Illinois 405 U.S 645 (1972) , ( ) . , " "" -. , , , .

 

2)             " '" (In re Kirchner 649 N.E. 2d 324 (Ill. 1995)) , , , , , . , .

 

3)             " '" (In re Clausen 502 N.W.2d 649 (Mich.1993)). ' , , , , . , , . . . , , :

 

[T]he Court is under no illusion that this tragic case is other than an unbelievably traumatic event. . . . While cognizant of the heartache which this decision will ultimately cause, this Court is presented with no other option than that dictated by the law in this state. Purely equitable principles cannot be substituted for well-established principles of law.

(, ' 693, ").

 

4)             : M.N.M., 605 A.2d 921 (D.C 1992). , , , . . DC , -25 , , , . ( , ), .

 

5)             , 2000, -14 . , , . , (: In Re A.J.F Applying for Private Adoption, 764 So. 2d 47 (La.2000)).

 

" : . . . (due process). ( 15 , , ) , :

 

The significance of the biological connection is that it offers the natural father an opportunity that no other male possesses to develop a relationship with his offspring. If he grasps that opportunity and accepts some measure of responsibility for the child's future, he may enjoy the blessings of the parent-child relationship and make uniquely valuable contributions to the childs development. Lehr, 463 U.S at 261-62. Accordingly, we find that the appellate court erred as a matter of law in finding that A.Es ( ") actual knowledge obviated the need for legal notice

 

6)             Jeremiah v Dakotam 285 Neb 211 (Neb. 2013) , . , , , . .

" , , ( ) ' ' (, ' 220). , (Putative Father Registries). -, . : Paige Kerchner Kaplan, Putting the Child First in Custody Battle between Biological Fathers and Adoptive Parents, 35 Santa Clara L. Rev. 907 (1994-1995); David D. Meyer, Family Ties: Solving the Constitutional Dilemma of the Faultless Father, 41 Ariz. L. Rev. 753 (1999); Laura Oren, Thwarted Fathers or Pop-Up Pops: How to Determine When Putative Fathers Can Block the Adoption of Their Newborn Children 40 Fam. L.Q. 153 (2006-2007).

: . 277() " :

 

" , , , , ".

 

278 " , :

 

" - , ; ".

 

 

 

.                    

 

Kawartha Hailburton Children's Aid v. G (2012) , , . . , . , , , . :

 

I accept that the Society (

) has a difficult and challenging role and it is required to carry out its responsibility with finite resources. Nevertheless an order for Crown wardship ( ) is an important step and carries very serious consequences for the child and the family. It requires the Society in my view to make reasonable efforts to identify and notify a biological father of a crown wardship application

( ").

 

.

 

1)           W.S. v The Adoption Board [2009] IEHC 429  . , . 3 . , -5 ( ), . , . , , . , , . :

 

The consequences of the non-notification of a natural father is that a central party to the adoption proceedings is excluded. This creates a real risk, that the process may be flawed or kiltered by the sole reliance on one-sided information that may turn out to be inaccurate or otherwise unreliable. There is a grave risk of a very serious breach of the natural fathers constitutional right to fair procedures and natural justice... resulting in a very serious injustice being done to the natural father and, by extension, the child, if the natural father is excluded from the process on the basis of reliance solely on information supplied by the mother. This risk, in my judgment, places on the respondent a very heavy onus of ensuring that the procedures it adopts... must be adequate to ensure that the injustice mentioned is avoided.

 

2)           KSH v Adoption Authoriy of Ireland [2015] IEHC 772 , . , :

The problem with secrets was that they are frequently found out and that the father would probably find out eventually. If this happened, the father could then take steps to challenge any adoption order that had been made.

 

. .

 

':

 

23.          " " . 13()(1) . 1, , , . , , 12) , . , () : , , ( 3) , " .

 

, . , , , , , " ".

 

13()(1) ( (), 13()(1)() , , : " ... ", ).

 

24.          - , ", , . , " () 278 " ( , , ), ( ' , ).

 

25.          " ' 8, . " , " - ( ) , , Ex Parte, . , . .

 

': ,

 

26.          - (), 13()(1) . , , 13 , , , " . , 13 30 .

 

27.          13 " , ( , , ) ( , , ), . , , , , , ( ). " .

 

28.          , , ", :

 

)           , , 1, ' 8 :

 

( ' 8) "-2010

 
1. , , ; , , 7.

 

, , , , , , . , , , -" - 13 " ( -" 1892/11 " ' , " (3), 356, 386 (2011)).

 

)             , ( ), , , 3 . : " 6211/13 " ' (23.12.2013).

 

29.          - 13()(1) , 30 13 , ( , , , ). .

" 30 - , .

 

30.          " , , , , " " .

 

, , :

 

)             , , '' - 13()(1) , .

 

)             13()(1) , , .

 

)              , , 60 13 , 15 ( ) , , . .

 

)             - ( ) ( Ex Parte) .

 

 

31.          " , ' , , : ' -' , , ' , , , :

 

)           13()(1) , , ', , (: 196-195 (1987); , 1796-1793).

 

)             ' , , , , 60 -, . " 19 . , , , :

 

"19. , ; ".

 

", , , , , , 60 . , , , , , , .

 

)              13()(1) " 60 " , , . , ", , 15 .

 

 

32.          ' 8 . , , -" " .

 

 

 

 

' :

 

' ' , . , , .

. , 13()(1) , "-1981 (: ), " ". , -. , 13() , 60 " -". .

. 13()(1) ?

1. , 13()(1) , , -:

"(1) , ; , , 8():

() ;

() ;

() ;".

 

 

( ' 8), "2010 (: ) [: - ].

2. , " ", . , . , , 13()(1) , - [: - ]. , , , " ". , . , " " .

, [: 12 ]. , 13()(1) , - . , , , 13()(1) . .

3. ( 13()(1)() ) , , , . - , , , " " , .

" ", 13()(1)() . , , " " [ 23 ; ]. , . , , , .

, , , . , , ( , "" ). , , " " . . , " " , 13()(1)() .

 

4. ( 13()(1)() ) " " . . , , . , . , ( ) . , "". , "" , "" . .

5. , " ". , , 13()(1) " 8()". 8() , , , . , ( , : ) , . , " " .

6. 13()(1)() . , .

" " , . , . , 8() " ". , . , , , "" .

7. "" ? , " , " [ . : ]. , . , . " " " " , . .

. , , . , , .

8. . "" . , 13()(1)().

, 13()(1) " " . -.

. - 13()(1) - ( 13 )?

9. 13 , -. 13() -13():

 

"() - 13()(1) , , , ; 30 .

[...]

() () 60 - 13()(1), , ; , -.".

 

, , 13() , , -. , . 60 13() , , . , [: - - ]. , 13() . , 60 13() , , 15 [: 19-13 ].

10. , . , , 13() - . , 13() , , 13()(1) . , : , 13() , , . .

11. , , -, . , , 13() : -. , 60 , , 13() . , 60 , [: -- ].

, . , 13() [: 14 -19 ], . 13 , , , . , 60 , , , " " . , , " " " " [: 16 ]. , - ( ) . , 20-16 . , -, . " " , , . , .

12. 60 13() , 13()(1) ? , , . , , . , 60 -? , , [ : ]. , . , 13()(1) , .

13. 13()(1) . , - " " , , 13()(1)()-(), .

13()(1) , 13() , " , , , " [" 778/09 ' , 26 ' (29.11.2009)]. -" 377/05 ' , " (1) 124, (2005) ' :

" [ 13() ..] 13(1), , . , . . , . . --, , . , . , , , . ." [, ' 171; ].

 

, " " 13()(1) , . , . , ' , , " . , " [" 5082/05 ' , " (3) 201, 218 (2005)]. ' , :

" . . . , , . . . , . - , . ." [, ' 223].

 

, , , , , .

14. , " " 13()(1) . , , . , ( 13()(1)() -() ) , , "", , . , , . , 13()(1) , . , , -. , 13()(1) , . , .

15. 60 -, 13() . , . , 13()(1) . 13()(1) 13 , . 13()(1) 60 . , , " " , , .

16. , 13() 60 - 13()(1) . , 13 , 13() . , 13() 13() -. , 13() . . , - , . , . , 30 .

17. . , , , 13()(1)() -() . , 60 13() . , , 13() [: 26 -28 ].

18. , , . 13() , -. , , , -' - . , - , " ", 16 . , 19 13() . 13() 60 13(), . , , " " , 18 .

, 13()(1) , - .

19. , 13()(1) ( ) . 13(2), . , , " " 13()(1). 13(2)(3) :

" ".

 

 

, 13()(1) , ? , - . , . , [: ' 14-12 251 , , -18 (19.10.2010); ' 29-25 278 , , -18 (28.11.2010)]. , , 13()(1) -13(2)(3) " -" : , , . , , 13()(1) "", , .

 

20. , 28 . " " , [: 29.) ]. , 7 .

21. , " " 29 . , :

(1) 13()(1) . 13()(1)()-() , .

(2) 13()(1)()-() 60 13() . , -.

(3) 13()(1)()-() 60 13(), 13() . , , 19 .

 

 

 

' :

 

1. , ' ' . . , , . , , .

 

, , ' . , . . , , , , .

 

2. , , , " -". 13()(1) , "-1981 (: ), ' 8, "-2010 (: ' 8), , -. "", - . , - . . , . , . , . , .

 

, , . . , . , , . . , 3 , , , . ? ? " ", -, ( " 377/05 ' , " (1) 124 (2005); " 778/09 ' (29.11.2009)). , ?

 

" ". , , . ' 8 , - ; ; ; - (, , 8, 13()(1), 13() ). , , , . , .

 

3. . . : , ; ' 8 , , - ; .

 

 

4. ' 8 . 8 . 7 , , ( 8(), ). , , , ; ; ; ( 8). 8 . , . , , , , . , , . ' 8 , -- .

 

, , 60 , , ( 10()).

- " -"

 

5. 13 -, . 13()(1), , " " (, . : -), :

 

(1) , ; , , 8():

() ;

() ;

() ;

 

, , ' 8, . , , , . , . . , "" . , ( : " " ( 2() , "-1988); " ... " ( 346 , "-1977); " , " ( 20() [ ]); " " ( 125() , "-1969)). ' 8 , 2010.

 

, ' 8. , " " " " . , reading in . , , , . :

 

" " , ( ' ( ), ' 357-360; R. Dworkin,Laws Empire Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass (1986) 313-354 ). ' . " , " (" 280/09 " ' " (22.2.2011), 6).

 

, . , . . . , . , . , 13()(1)() . . , , . , . , . . . , . , . , . , . . , , .

 

13()(1) . . , . , , . , - - (60 ). . , . . , . , , - , , .

 

6. , 13(1) :

 

(1) ()(1) , , , , .

 

 

, , . , : ; . , . , . . . ? : , , 7 . . , . , . , , . " " - ( 13()(2) ). . , , , . , , , , - . " " ' 8.

 

- -

 

7. 13 ' 8. . . :

 

() - 13()(1) , , , ; 30 .

 

, , , 13(). , , ( 10); , ( 13). -. , .

 

8. 13() :

 

() () 60 - 13()(1), , ; , -.

 

, 60 , 13()(1), . , -.

 

, , , . , . , . 15 . , - , . , .

 

. , . 60 . , , . , , . , ; . 60 , . . , , . , , .

 

, : 60 ( ). - ( ), , . .

 

9. . 9.12.2015, , . 16.1.2016. , 13(1), 13()(1). 24.1.2016 . 28.1.2016, 12 , . 8.2.2016, 23 , -. 10.2.2016 . 2016 , 6.6.2016 -.

 

, , ( 9 , 13()(1) ). . . , , 13()(1). , . , . , , -, , . , .

 

10. , . , . , . . , . . . . , . , 13()(1) -, . . 13() " 60 13()(1), ... ". 13()(1). , -. , , . 60 . , , . .

 

 

19

 

11. , 19 , :

, ; .

 

, , 13() 60 ? ? , ; - 60 , , , , ? , . , .

 

, 19. ' (' ' 85-83 (1989)). , , " ". 19 ( 399 (1994)). -. , 19 -.

 

19 . : -. , , , . - " 7015/94 ' , '' (1) 048, 120-119 (1995) ( ' ): ": - , , ( 16 ), - - - ( ) . ". , " ".

 

, 19 , , 60 . , , 5 ( 65 ), - . : 19, , . , . , 19 .

 

 

12. :

 

() 13()(1) , .

 

() 13()(1) . , . , , .

 

() 60 13() , .

 

() , , , - 60 .

 

() -.

() 19 - 60 -.

 

 

13. ' 8 , , . , . , . , . , , . , .

 

, - , , . , . , . , . , . , . . .

 

14. . . , 13(), , 30 , . , , , , . , , . , , .

 

, , , 28 .

 

 

 

 

' :

 

' ' ' 8 , "-1981 (: ) . ' -' , .

 

1. , 2016 2015 ( 17), 16.1.2016. , 10.2.2016 - , , 18.2.2016, . 2016 , .

 

2. , 13()(1) , " , ". " , "-1981 (: ) :

 

. , . , . , , , , .

 

, , 2016, . , , " " . , - . , , .

 

3. , .

 

13()(1) , 10.2.2016 . , 13()(1) . " " , . " ", " " ( : " 900/01 ' - 4, " (3) 750, 760 (2003) (: ) " " , " 357 (1996)). , , . , ' :

 

" : . , , , , . ... ( ) ... , , , , " (' , ' 134-133 (")).

 

 

" - . , , , , " (; " 3178/12 ' , 68 ' (17.11.2014)).

 

13()(1) , 8 . , , ' " ", ( 5 ). , - , " " " , , , ", , ( , ").

 

4. 13()(1)()-(), .

 

13()(1)() ( ). " " ( 23 ). , , , , . , - - . , 13()(1) , , , .

 

13()(1)() - " ". , () (), , , . , - " " , " " . , , . 8() 13(1) , 13()(1) " , " ( , "-1996). , ' , , " " ( 7 ; " -" 278 , "-1984 (: )). , , .

 

, - - ( ' ' : Melanie Sage, Todd Edward Sage, "Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice" Advances in Social Work Vol. 17, no. 1 (2016); Melanie Sage, Todd Edward Sage, "Social Media and E-professionalism in Child Welfare: Policy and Practice" Journal of Public Child Welfare Volume 10, Issue 1 Pages 79-95 (2016);Tonia C. Stott, Ann MacEachron, Nora Gustavsson "Social Media and Child Welfare: Policy, Training, and the Risks and Benefits From the Administrators Perspective" Advances in Social Work Vol. 17, no.2 (2016)). , (" 377/05 ' , '' (1) 124, 154, 160 (2006); " 577/83 ' , " (1) 461, 468-467, 478 (1984); " : ' '" 163 (")). - - . 13()(1)() - " " - .

 

5. , , .

 

, 16.1.2016 , 13()(1) ( 6 ). , 3.2.2016, (8.2.2016) - , " ". 13()(1) 30 13(1) . 10.2.2016 , - " ", .

 

6. 279() " - ". 13()(1) . 13()(1) , . , . , 13()(1)() , , , . , , 278 ( 24 ).

 

7. - 13()(1), . 13() . , . - . , 29() " , , - 60 13 , 15 ". , 8 .

, -, ( 28 ) , 30 . ( 29 ) - 30 , .

 

 

.             , . ' , ' , ' -' , ' , . - 30 , 13() , . . 30 - , , , , .

 

.             , ' , ' ' , ' -' , 13()(1) -, , : " , ", ; , .

 

 

, ' " (28.2.2017).

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________

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